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Here we try to keep track of who has been using and discussing the MICA toolbox and its components (emphasis on ‘try’). Users are invited to use this library to inform themselves about how these tools have been used and discussed by researchers. This list is by no means current or comprehensive but can serve as a useful starting point.


  1. Experimental trait mismatches uncover specificity of evolutionary links between multiple signalling traits and their interactions in hummingbirds (Simpson & Graw 2019)
  2. Higher-level pattern features provide additional information to birds when recognizing and rejecting parasitic eggs (Stoddard et al. 2019)
  3. Synchronization of speed, sound and iridescent color in a hummingbird aerial courtship dive (Hogan & Stoddard 2018)
  4. Individual egg camouflage is influenced by microhabitat selection and use of nest materials in ground-nesting birds (Gomez et al. 2018)
  5. It’s not just what you have, but how you use it: solar-positional and behavioural effects on hummingbird colour appearance during courtship (Simpson & McGraw 2018)
  6. Latitudinal variation in biophysical characteristics of avian eggshells to cope with differential effects of solar radiation (Gomez et al. 2018)
  7. Increasing photoperiod stimulates the initiation of spring migratory behaviour and physiology in a facultative migrant, the pine siskin (Robart et al. 2018)
  8. Visual discrimination of polymorphic nestlings in a cuckoo-host system (Attisano et al. 2018)
  9. Parental phenotype not predator cues influence egg warning coloration and defence levels (Paul et al 2018)
  10. Two ways to display: male hummingbirds show different color-display tactics based on sun orientation (Simpson & McGraw 2018)
  11. Egg mimicry by the Pacific koel: mimicry of one host facilitates exploitation of other hosts with similar egg types (Abernathy et al. 2017)
  12. Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds (Stevens et al. 2017)
  13. Diversity in warning coloration is easily recognized by avian predators (Arenas & Stevens 2017)
  14. Relative advantages of dichromatic and trichromatic color vision in camouflage breaking (Troscianko et al. 2017)
  15. Colour preferences of UK garden birds at supplementary seed feeders (Rothery et al. 2017)
  16. Nest covering in plovers: How modifying the visual environment influences egg camouflage (Troscianko et al. 2016)
  17. Camouflage and Clutch Survival in Plovers and Terns (Stoddard et al. 2016)
  18. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage (Wilson-Aggarwal et al. 2016)
  19. Sexing a sex-role-reversed species based on plumage: potential challenges in the red phalarope (Giroux et al. 2016)
  20. Camouflage predicts survival in ground-nesting birds (Troscianko et al. 2016)
  21. Assessing Behavioral Associations in a Hybrid Zone through Social Network Analysis: Complex Assortative Behaviors Structure Associations in a Hybrid Quail Population (Zonana et al. 2019)
  22. How conspicuous are peacock eyespots and other colorful feathers in the eyes of mammalian predators? (Kane et al. 2019)
  23. Sexual selection predicts the rate and direction of colour divergence in a large avian radiation (Cooney et al. 2019)
  24. Ecological and geographical overlap drive plumage evolution and mimicry in woodpeckers (Miller et al. 2019)

Spiders & Insects

  1. No evidence of quantitative signal honesty across species of aposematic burnet moths (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) (Briolat et al. 2019)
  2. The appearance of mimetic Heliconius butterflies to predators and conspecifics (Dell’Aglio et al. 2018)
  3. Sex differences but no evidence of quantitative honesty in the warning signals of six-spot burnet moths (Zygaena filipendulae L.) (Briolat et al. 2018)
  4. Can multiple-model mimicry explain warning signal polymorphism in the wood tiger moth, Arctia plantaginis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)? (Ronka et al. 2018)
  5. Positioning behavior according to individual color variation improves camouflage in novel habitats (Banos-Villalba 2018)
  6. Avian vision models and field experiments determine the survival value of peppered moth camouflage (Walton & Stevens 2018)
  7. Colour change of twig-mimicking peppered moth larvae is a continuous reaction norm that increases camouflage against avian predators (Eacock et al. 2017)
  8. Two ways to hide: predator and prey perspectives of disruptive coloration and background matching in jumping spiders (Robledo-Ospida et al. 2017)
  9. Aposematism in the burying beetle? Dual function of anal fluid in parental care and chemical defense (Lindstedt et al. 2017)
  10. Mapping the variation in spider body colouration from an insect perspective (Ajuria-Ibarra et al. 2017)
  11. Quantifying camouflage: how to predict detectability from appearance (Troscianko et al. 2017)
  12. Avoidance of an aposematically coloured butterfly by wild birds in a tropical forest (Dell’Aglio et al. 2016)
  13. Phenotype – environment matching in sand fleas (Stevens et al. 2015)
  14. Sexual selection drives the evolution of male wing interference patterns (Hawekes et al. 2019)

Other Crustaceans

  1. Context-dependent crypsis: a prey’s perspective of a color polymorphic predator (Rodriguez-Morales et al. 2018)
  2. Colour polymorphism in the coconut crab (Birgus latro) (Nokelainen et al. 2018)
  3. Through predators’ eyes: phenotype-environment associations in shore crab coloration at different spatial scales (Nokelainen et al. 2018)
  4. Active background choice facilitates crypsis in a tropical crab (Uy et al. 2017)
  5. Background matching and disruptive coloration as habitat-specific strategies for camouflage (Price et al. 2019)
  6. Improved camouflage through ontogenetic colour change confers reduced detection risk in shore crabs (Nokelainen et al. 2019)


  1. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in aposematic Malagasy poison frogs (genus Mantella) (Klonoski & Rosenblum 2019)
  2. Ontogeny of sexual dichromatism in the explosively breeding Wood Frog (Lambert et al. 2017)


  1. The Genetic Basis of Adaptation following Plastic Changes in Coloration in a Novel Environment (Ammon 2018 et al.)
  2. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behaviour (Putman et al. 2017)
  3. Rapid body color brightening is associated with exposure to a stressor in an Anolis lizard (Boyer & Swierk 2017)
  4. Trait allometries generate super-honesty in Anolis dewlaps and may underlie sexual dimorphism (Petelo & Swierk 2017)
  5. Microhabitat choice in island lizards enhances camouflage against avian predators (Marshall et al. 2016)
  6. Conspicuous male coloration impairs survival against avian predators in Aegean wall lizards, Podarcis erhardii (Marshall et al. 2015)


  1. Rock pool fish use a combination of colour change and substrate choice to improve camouflage (Smithers et al. 2018)
  2. Darter (Percidae: Etheostoma) species differ in their response to video stimuli (Roberts et al. 2017)
  3. Rock pool gobies change their body pattern in response to background features (Smithers et al. 2017)


  1. Human colour in mate choice and competition (Rowland & Burriss 2017)


  1. Digital photography provides a fast, reliable, and noninvasive method to estimate anthocyanin pigment concentration in reproductive and vegetative plant tissues (del Valle et al. 2018)
  2. Insect herbivory may cause changes in the visual properties of leaves and affect the camouflage of herbivores to avian predators (Koski et al. 2017)


  1. I see your false colours: how artificial stimuli appear to different animal viewers (Stoddard et al. 2018)
  2. Ultra-antireflective synthetic brochosomes (Yang et al. 2017)
  3. Heat treatment as a universal technical solution for silcrete use? A comparison between silcrete from the Western Cape (South Africa) and the Kalahari (Botswana) (Schmidt et al. 2017)

Studies discussing or proposing the use of MICA / QCPA:

  1. Evolutionary ecology of insect egg coloration: a review (Guerra-Grenier 2019)
  2. Animal Coloration Patterns: Linking Spatial Vision to Quantitative Analysis (Stoddard & Osorio 2019)
  3. Quantitative color profiling of digital images with earth mover’s distance using the R package colordistance (Weller & Westneat 2019)
  4. Boundary strength analysis: Combining colour pattern geometry and coloured patch visual properties for use in predicting behaviour and fitness (Endler et al. 2018)
  5. Multimodal Aposematic Signals and Their Emerging Role in Mate Attraction (Rojas et al. 2018)
  6. Estimation of the camera spectral sensitivity function using neural learning and architecture (Chaji et al. 2018)
  7. AcuityView: An r package for portraying the effects of visual acuity on scenes observed by an animal (Caves & Johnsen 2018)
  8. The importance of cross-validation, accuracy, and precision for measuring plumage color: A comment on Vaquero-Alba et al. (2016) (Hubbard et al. 2017)
  9. Quantifying Human Visible Color Variation from High Definition Digital Images of Orb Web Spiders (Tapia-McClung et al. 2016)
  10. Mimicry for all modalities (Dalziell & Welbergen 2016)
  11. How to measure color using spectrometers and calibrated photographs (Johnsen 2016)
  12. SpotEgg: an image-processing tool for automatised analysis of colouration and spottiness (Gomez et al. 2017)
  13. Shape matters: animal colour patterns as signals of individual quality (Perez-Rodriguez et al. 2017)
  14. PAVO 2: New tools for the spectral and spatial analysis of colour in R (Maia et al. 2019)
  15. Increasing the functionalities and accuracy of fisheries electronic monitoring systems (Gilman et al. 2019)
  16. Imperfect camouflage: how to hide in a variable world? (Hughes et al. 2019)
  17. PAT-GEOM: A software package for the analysis of animal patterns (Chan et al. 2019)
  18. Defences against brood parasites from a social immunity perspective (Cotter et al. 2019)
  19. Climate is a strong predictor of nearinfrared reflectance but a poor predictor of colour in butterflies (Munro et al. 2019)
  20. Plumage patterns: Ecological functions, evolutionary origins, and advances in quantification (Mason & Bowie 2020)

Studies that have used QCPA:

  1. Evolution of correlated complexity in the radically different courtship signals of birds-of-paradise (Ligon et al. 2018)
  2. Camouflage in arid environments: the case of Sahara-Sahel desert rodents (Nokelainen et al. 2020)
  3. Does reproductive mode affect sexually-selected coloration? Evaluating UV–blue spots in parthenogenetic and bisexual lizards of the genus Darevskia (Abramjan et al. 2020)
  4. Climate Predicts UV Floral Pattern Size, Anthocyanin Concentration, and Pollen Performance in Clarkia unguiculata (Peach et al. 2020)
  5. Camouflage accuracy in Sahara–Sahel desert rodents (Nokelainen et al. 2020)
  6. A Matador-like Predator Diversion Strategy Driven by Conspicuous Coloration in Guppies (Heathcote et al. 2020)

Studies using MICA + QCPA
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